One of the cartographic masterpieces produced by Henricus Martellus Germanus (2nd half of 15th cent.) is an insularium, or book of islands, designed around 1490. It includes both the islands described by Ptolemy (ca. 100-ca. 175 CE) and those illustrated in the Liber Insularum Archipelagi by the Florentine humanist Cristoforo Buondelmonti. The insularium is accompanied by a graduated map that radically changes and expands the maps of the oikumene (that is, the inhabited world) of Ptolemy's Geography. The insularium updates these with information from the Portuguese voyages and discoveries along the western coast of Africa down to the Cape of Good Hope. Compared with Ptolemy's map, the map prepared by Martellus extends 40° farther east to include the lands described by Marco Polo (1254-1324), and approximately 25° farther south to represent the circumnavigation of Africa and the opening of the Indian Ocean toward the Atlantic Ocean. The place name cavo de esperanza indicates that the map was specifically updated to reflect the latest voyages by Bartolomeu Dias (1450-1500), who rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1487-88, opening the route from Lisbon to Calicut. In the eastern part of the oikumene, Martellus preserved the Ptolemaic map forms but replaced the place names of Ptolemy's Geography with those derived from Marco Polo's Marvels of the World.