Site Map
"Africa is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Ethiopian Ocean, on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the east by the Nile River. It embraces the Mauritanias, Tingitana [modern Tangiers] and Caesarea, inland Libya, Numidia (also called Mapalia), lesser Africa that contains Carthage the historic rival of the Roman Empire, Cyrenaica, Marmarica [modern Barca], [Libya (by which name also the whole of Africa is called, from Libs, a king of Mauritania)] inland Ethiopia, Egypt and others. It is called Africa because it is spared the severity of the cold." (Cosmographiae introductio, chap. IX - Hessler 2008)