Models of vine training systems

Florence, Opera Laboratori Fiorentini

Four of the six types of grapevine training described by Pliny and Columella are shown. The other two are the pergola or vitis camerata (5) and the simple yoke or vites jugatae or jugatis directa (6).

1. Tree-leaning (arbustum italicum): the vine tendrils rested on elms or poplar trees.

2. "Married" (arbustum gallicum): the vines were trained to climb along the trunks of trees with little foliage, usually maples or willows.

3. Compluvium-shaped (jugatio compluviata): the vines were tied to poles arranged like the roof of a Roman house (compluvium), open at the centre.

4. Free-standing (vites suberectae): the vines required no support.