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Treaty between Ebla and Abarsal

Cast of the original cuneiform tablet
c. 2400 B.C.
Rome, Museo del Vicino Oriente, Università “La Sapienza”
Inv. TM.75.G.2420


This is the text of the most ancient treaty in the history of humanity. It governs relations between the States of Ebla and Abarsal, situated along a river in Upper Mesopotamia. It mentions transporting goods, including olive oil and wine, by riverboat and overland on donkeys.