The German cartographer Henricus Martellus Germanus (Heinrich Hammer, 2nd half of 15th cent.) was active in Florence from 1459 to 1496. He was the scientific heir to the cartographer Nicolaus Germanus, who prepared at least three manuscript copies of Ptolemy's Geography. Henricus, in turn, produced two manuscripts of the Ptolemaic text, an Insularium, and a large manuscript map that served as a model for Martin Waldseemüller's (ca. 1470-ca. 1520) world map. Martellus's map extended the known world from 180° to 270° of longitude, depicting the two lands described by Marco Polo (1254-1324) beyond the eastern limit of the Ptolemaic oikumene (inhabited world): Cathay and Cipangu, the modern-day China and Japan. Martellus's cartographic update is on full display in the beautiful manuscript of the Geography preserved at the Biblioteca Nazionale in Florence, whose title itself refers to the Portuguese navigators' discoveries. To the 27 regional maps described by Ptolemy—which are reproduced in strict conformity to his text—Martellus added 12 modern ones. However, in the representation of the universal map, he incorporated the change made by Nicolaus Germanus (2nd half of 15th cent.), who had already pictured the northern lands and seas above the Thule parallel. Even as the geographic data were being updated, ancient knowledge was being transmitted intact in all copies of the Geography, with no changes, as if to preserve its historical character. Ancient and modern continued to coexist, side by side, in nearly all maps of the period, including Waldseemüller's large world map.