The Prima Esposizione Nazionale di Storia della Scienza [First National Exposition of the History of Science] - held in Florence from May to November 1929 thanks to the determined commitment of Andrea Corsini, Piero Ginori Conti, Antonio Garbasso and Giorgio Abetti - was an event unique of its kind. With over 9000 scientific exhibits coming from some 80 cities and over 200 private and public lenders, it brought to the attention of the general public, for the first time, the problem of safeguarding the national historical scientific heritage, while emphasizing the central role played by science in constructing the Italian cultural identity.